In the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells secrete CCL5, a cytokine that attracts M2 (protumor) macrophages and T-regs to encourage tumor growth and metastasis. During malignant transformation, upregulated CCL5 receptors on these cells enhance tumor progression. In response to CCL5, M2 macrophages produce VEGF, promoting angiogenesis in the tumor and promoting metastasis by stimulating tumor cell proliferation and invasion into the bloodstream, resulting in tumor cells circulating throughout the body.
CytoDyn’s Leronlimab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the CCR5 receptor to win back control for the immune system in the tumor microenvironment in many types of cancer. It does this by inhibiting T-reg infiltration, converting M2 macrophages into M1 (antitumor) macrophages, decreasing tumor angiogenesis, and inhibiting metastasis through CCR5 overexpression.
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